White hat, black hat, and cyber terrorist hackers can all be categorized into one of three categories. White-hat hackers only break into systems with the owner's consent and good motives. These cybercriminals investigate security flaws and strive to safeguard the system. Contrarily, black-hat hackers can enter any system without authorization.
Typically, they act in this way to benefit themselves.
Gray hat hackers are people that straddle the ethical and unethical lines of hacking. They might break into a network or website without the owner's knowledge, but they do it to uncover a security hole and inform the owner. After that, they can demand payment before disclosing all of their research results.
The motivations of black-hat hackers are avarice and malicious intent. These cybercriminals frequently create their own malicious software and hone specialized abilities to penetrate their targets' defenses. They frequently try to enter and exit a system undetected. They are thought to be the most hazardous kinds of hackers.
On the other hand, cyberterrorists may try to shut down utilities, change the look of websites, or attack the systems of their enemies because they have political goals. Gray-hat hackers frequently work for businesses or for individuals. Even though some of them promise to patch security holes in businesses' networks, they are still breaking the law. If given a financial incentive, some people might even start engaging in illegal acts.
Gray-hat hackers may take advantage of these flaws and harm a company's reputation if they are unable to fully defend their network. In between white-hat and black-hat hackers is the gray-hat category. Without the website owner's knowledge or consent, they might take advantage of weaknesses. They might also make public information about vulnerabilities.
The 1990s saw the expansion of the internet and the ubiquity of computer worms. Millions of email accounts were accessed by these hostile hackers, who also caused Internet traffic in some areas to slow down. The Stuxnet malware, which attacked 5,000 Iranian nuclear reactors, was found in 2010. Individual cyberattacks have become more frequent today, and states are engaging in cyberwarfare to get sensitive data.
Hackers often attack social media networks, and many websites have become weak points for them to attack. White hat hackers, in contrast to black hat hackers, employ their hacking abilities for good. They attempt to employ their hacking abilities, like the honorable Jedi Luke Skywalker, to identify vulnerabilities in business networks. These cybercriminals are also known as "moral hackers. White-hat hackers are not all trustworthy, either. They spend the majority of their time defending businesses and organizations against harmful assaults.
Black-hat hackers are expert cybercriminals with in-depth knowledge of computer networks and considerable expertise in getting around security measures. They frequently use malware to get unauthorised access to a network. They could be novices looking to propagate malware or skilled hackers working for highly organized criminal groups. Some of them are also motivated by the desire to steal data or engage in cyberespionage. Because the stolen data is a valuable resource, some of these hackers are ready to destroy it.
Those who work in cybersecurity might be interested in learning more about these hacker subtypes. Additionally, they must be taught how to report nefarious assaults and vulnerabilities. It's crucial to realize that both kinds of hackers have the ability to target networks and websites related to elections. It is important to act quickly if there are any security problems, whether they are caused by malicious or accidental attacks.
Attacking a computer system for political or social objectives is known as hacktivism. One group that engages in this kind of hacking is Anonymous, which supports libertarian and leftist beliefs. Activism was also practiced by the former organization, LulzSec, which was responsible for several well-publicized assaults against Sony Pictures Entertainment. Cyber attacks and hacking are becoming more and more prevalent in the information technology industry.
However, as technology advances, there are also new weaknesses and technical capabilities that can be abused. Hackers have caused severe disruptions to information systems as a result of these weaknesses. As a result, "cyber-terrorists," a new threat, have emerged. Terrorists may soon be able to do more harm with a keyboard than with a bomb as a result. Cyber attacks, however, are less reliable than physical attacks and are frequently addressed quickly.
Cyberattacks are more likely to target the United States. Devastating effects on the economy and morale of the country may result from such attacks. Terrorists are increasingly using cyberattacks to incite fear and bloodshed. Any computer based cyber attack intended to destabilize a society, a government, or infrastructure is referred to as "cyberterrorism."
In order to succeed, the attack must be both disruptive and destructive enough. An attack that results in fatalities or protracted power disruptions, for instance, would be considered cyberterrorism. Attacks that mess with services like phone service and the internet that are not required would not be allowed, though.